Bilal Muhammad

Bilal Muhammad is a Fellow and Research Assistant at the Berkeley Institute For Islamic Studies. He is also an MA Candidate at the University of Ottawa Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, B.Ed at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto, and Honors BA in Political Science and History at the University of Toronto. He is an educator and researcher based in Toronto, Canada.
nation of islam

The Nation of Islam is often ostracized for being unorthodox and even heretical, yet Muslims of all denominations have much to learn from them.[...]

jordan peterson and islam

Jordan Peterson has been an invaluable addition to debates on modern controversies. Unfortunately, his views and claims about Islam and Islamic history have been far from nuanced and plays into the hands of anti-Muslim sentiments.[...]

adam's peak sri lanka

This article examines the early Islamic notion that Adam, the promulgator of the human species, descended to India from heaven. Readers are introduced to Adam's Peak, a mysterious mountain in Sri Lanka that is revered by some Muslims, Buddhists, [...]

sufism hodgson

Marshall Hodgson gives a thoughtful analysis into some of the spiritual traditions in Shīʿism and the possible outside influences on those traditions. However, he fails to keep the same critical standards in his analysis of historical Sufism.[...]

jamkaran

This paper is a critical review of Saïd Amir Arjomand's article "The Crisis of the Imamate and the Institution of Occultation in Twelver Shiʿism." While Arjomand highlights some important crises, the article is full of tenuous claims and [...]

While the peculiar concept of the transmigration of souls was downplayed by some Būyid-era scholars, some forms of the doctrine can be found in the earliest and most central Shīʿi texts. This article reviews sources that may help us understand [...]